Cancer

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What is cancer ?

Human body is made up of millions of cells. Cell cycle is a symbol of life. Killing of old cells and replacing it with new cells is continuous, regularised and controlled process. When this process becomes uncontrolled or irregular there is a formaton of TUMOUR.

TUMOUR means Uncontrolled, unusual, purposeless proliferation of cells.

Tumours are of two types
1.Harmless- Benign
2.Harmful -Malignant

Benign tumours do not spread to distant parts or organs while malignant tumours have potential to spread to distant parts and other organs of body. Cells from malignant tumours travels through blood vessels and lymphatics and reaches to the distant sites where they forms colonies. These colonies are called as metastasis and these malignant tumours are called cancer.

Myths About Cancer and Remedies :

People have very big stigma and fear about cancer. Many people think cancer is incurable but it’s not true. There are lot of new developments in cancer treatment in recent past which made majority of cancer curable.Early detection and proper treatment by cancer specialists is key of success and increases chances of complete cure.

Sr. No.StagePercentage Of Curability
1Stage I90 - 100%
2.Stage II70 - 80%
3.Stage III40 - 60%
4.Stage IV0 - 5% (Very Less)

Treatments Of Cancer :

    • There are three types of treatments for cancer.

 

Chemotherapy
Surgery
RadioTherapy

Causes of Cancer :

Killing old cells and replacing it with same number of normal new cells is ongoing process. While producing new cells few abnormal cells are also produced. Body has a very efficient quality control department. As new cells are produced quality control department checks each and every cell and allows only normal cells to enter in the new cycle, abnormal cells are killed and not allowed to enter in the new cycle.

Now any defect in above process produces cancer. If quality control becomes weak due to genetic defects or old age or decreased immunity chances of defective cells entering to new cycle increases. Once defective cell enters new cycle it keeps on producing new defective cells and tumour or cancer is formed. E.g. Familial cancers, old age cancers, cancers with AIDS.

If production of cells is more due to continuous infection (H. Papilloma virus in carcinoma cervix) or due to continuous injuries and healing (betel nut injuries in oral cancer) or action of carcinogens on developing new cells (tobacco in oral cancer) chances of abnormal cells entering to new cell cycle and developing cancer increases.

TOBACCO – CHEWING OR SMOKING
DIET AND EXERCISES
VIRAL INFECTIONS
HEREDITY
RADIATION

Cancer Screening :

Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear. This may involve blood tests, urine tests, other tests, or medical imaging. The benefits of screening in terms of cancer prevention, early detection and subsequent treatment must be weighed against any harms.

Screening tests must be effective, safe, well-tolerated with acceptably low rates of false positive and false negative results.

 

Screening for cancer can lead to cancer prevention and earlier diagnosis. Early diagnosis may lead to higher rates of successful treatment and extended life. However, it may also falsely appear to increase the time to death through lead time bias or length time bias.

Signs & Symptoms of Cancer :

Cancer in initial stages doesn’t show any signs and symptoms. After certain stage it starts producing its signs and symptoms. Following are some symptoms of cancer. If you get any of these symptoms consult your doctor as early as possible before it grows to incurable stage. Treatment from cancer specialists increases the chances of cure. Cancer is curable if detected early and treated properly.

 

After the treatment of cancer it is very important to follow your doctor regularly.

Breast Cancer
  • Lump in breast
  • Axillary Swelling
  • bloody discharge from nipple
  • destruction of nipple
Cervix Cancer
  • Per vaginal bleeding after menopause
  • bleeding after intercourse
  • White discharge
Urinary System
  • Backache
  • Blood in urine
  • Burning micturition
  • Testicular swelling
  • Non healing ulcer at penis
Gastrointestinal System
  • Abdominal distention
  • Vomiting
  • Blood in vomits or stool
  • Black coloured stool
  • Lump in the abdomen
  • Jaundice
Respiratory System
  • Cough
  • Weight loss
  • Blood in sputum
  • Chest pain
Head & Neck
  • Non healing ulcer in mouth
  • Change in voice
  • Epistaxis
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Goitre
  • Neck swelling
  • White or red patches in mouth